Technology and Innovation
- India ought to be among the very best fifty countries inside the world Innovation Index by 2022–23.1
- Five of our scientific research establishments ought to be amongst the very best one hundred inside the planet.
- India ought to aim to pay a minimum of two p.c of gross domestic product (GDP) on R&D with equal contributions from the general public and private sectors.
“Recognizing the crucial role of technology and innovation in economic development, India’s policy manufacturers have taken many initiatives to plug science, technology, and innovation.Various schemes square measure launched to attract, nurture, and retain young analysisers and girl’s scientists inside the sector of research. Some necessary achievements inside the sector of science and technology square measure enumerated below.”
- India has become a significant destination for outsourced R&D activities. we tend to presently have over one,100 R&D centers supported by transnational corporations (MNCs) like IBM, Google, Microsoft, Intel, Lupin, Wockhardt, etc. These R&D centers cowl areas as well as info and communication technologies, biotechnology, and part, automotive, chemicals, and materials technology. India’s comparatively sturdy belongings regime can facilitate its emergence as a significant R&D center.
- Indian scientists square measure at the forefront of some international ground-breaking work. Recent contributions by Indian scientists to frontier analysis and technology square measure encouraging. as an example, thirty-seven Indian scientists from 9 Indian establishments vie a key role in discovering attractive force waves that received the Physics honor in 2017. Indian scientists conjointly contributed to the invention of a star merger at optical device measuring system Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), USA.
- The event of Brahmos, advanced defense supersonic fighter aircraft missiles, numerous missiles, and rocket systems, remotely piloted vehicles, lightweight combat craft, etc., square measure good samples of India’s progress in strategic and defense technologies.
- India currently ranks amongst a couple of countries that have credible capabilities inside the sector of area technology. The upgrading from SLV to ASLV and PSLV to GSLV, the first moon artificial satellite project Chandrayan-1, Mars artificial satellite Mission, and conjointly the recent coincident launch of 104 satellites square measure India’s vital achievements.
- India is currently the third-largest country in terms of the quantity of start-ups. This range is foreseen to rise exponentially inside the approaching years. the govt. Has supported the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) to transform the innovation, entrepreneurship, and start-up system of the country radically.
While the Asian nation has improved in most areas of technology, it is also necessary to acknowledge the challenges that we would like to beat to become an Associate in Nursing innovation-led society.
- Low R&D expenditure, particularly from the non-public sector, perhaps a key challenge facing the innovation system in the Asian nations. the foremost recent R&D Statistics2 free by the National Science and Technology Management information system (NSTMIS) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) show that whereas R&D expenditure in the Asian nation tripled inside the amount from 2004–05 to 2014–15, its size as a share of value remained at zero.7 percent. typically|this can be} often terribly low compared to the 2 p.c and one.2 p.c spent by China (for a pair of015) and Brazil (for 2014), severally.3 Countries like Israel pay the most quantity of four.3 p.c of their value on R&D. what is more, whereas the share of the non-public sector in R&D investment in most technologically advanced countries is as high as sixty-five percent to seventy-five percent, it’s solely concerning thirty p.c in Asian nation.
- The amount of scientific R&D professionals in the Asian nation at 218 per million population is painfully low compared to China’s one,113 and therefore the USA’s 4019.
- The link between analysis, instruction, and business is weak and emerging. It should be strong and placed on a firm platform.
- Our education system has to date not targeted on cultivating a scientific temperament at Associate in Nursing early age. Even at the later stages of Associate in Nursing aspiring scientist’s career, the shortage of career opportunities in basic sciences lands up amusive potential researchers to alternative profitable sectors.
- “Lab to Land” time is simply too long. famed public-funded establishments similar to the Council of Scientific & Industrial analysis (CSIR), Defence analysis and Development Organization (DRDO), Bhabha Atomic analysis Centre (BARC), Indian Council of Medical analysis (ICMR), Indian Council of Agricultural analysis (ICAR) Indian area analysis Organisation (ISRO), national leader Centre for Atomic analysis (IGCAR), etc., besides outstanding universities across the country, have developed several frontline technologies. However, the speed of transfer of these technologies to business and for social advantages are low.
- The adoption of native innovations by Indian businesses is not encouraging. Frequent violation of discriminatory Market Access (PMA) may be an issue leading to large-scale imports of foreign merchandise and services.
- The public procurance system is heavily biased in favor of veteran and established merchandise and technologies. This powerfully discourages new and innovative technologies offered by start-ups, UN agencies aren’t getting much-needed support from government procurance.
- There has been poor progress inside the event and preparation of reasonable technologies for rural areas, notably in agriculture, agro-processing, micro-irrigation, etc.
The Way Forward
- A sceptered body is needed to steer the management of science inside the country holistically. Its scope can embody science education and research additionally to coordinating and guiding varied science initiatives. The projected body can facilitate pursue inter-ministerial, inter-disciplinary analysis besides breaking silos among varied scientific departments/agencies.
- The key weaknesses of public-funded R&D and technology establishments like CSIR, DRDO, BARC, ICMR, and ISRO are their poor promoting skills and knowledge dissemination. Some measures for enhancing technology exploitation by public-funded establishments are:
(i) up-scaling technologies
(ii) up technologies from Technology Readiness Level (TRL) four to TRL 6/7
(iii) demonstrating industrial-scale pilot production
(iv) coordinating with investors to incubate entrepreneurs
(v) bridging the gap between trade and technology development groups
(vi) enabling formal technology transfer
(vii) enabling exploitation and promoting
(viii) providing technical support throughout the production
(ix) Public funded analysis establishments ought to take into account shifting their focus to the event and readying of socially relevant technologies in areas like clean potable, sanitation, energy, reasonable tending, organic farming, etc. These technologies have an oversized potential for exploitation.
- Measures related to government acquirement:
(i) all told government procurements, international competitive bidding for each merchandise and services ought to be resorted to providing Indian makers cannot give products/services of comparable international quality. this will promote the creation in the Bharat initiative.
(ii)Quarterly workshops also are organized for making awareness among procural managers of assorted ministries/ departments/state governments/CPSUs, regarding the DIPP’s Public procural Order 2017 (which aims to push creation in Bharat products/services).
(iii) To adopt innovative technologies, experts/scientific practitioners ought to be compulsorily enclosed onboard/committees related to government procural. All RFP/RFQ documents ought to embody the Associate in Nursing applicable clause during this regard.
(iv) To push procural of goods/ services developed by Indian start-ups, preference inside the technical analysis is also provided to them.
- To bring sonorousness to sparing innovations, a non-lapsable “District Innovation Fund” with a corpus of regarding INR two large integer in every district is additionally created and familiar with promoting grass-root innovations.
- AIM has already launched Atal New Bharat Challenges in partnership with 5 ministries to form merchandise from technologies and prototypes in areas of national importance like solid waste management, water, and sewer water management to boot as road and rail transport. These, besides Atal Incubation Centres (AICs), can give the platform for promoting sparing innovation. a lot of such challenges are launched in partnership with ministries, and support is provided to those ministries to adopt the resultant innovations.
- AIM has supported over one thousand Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs) around the country, covering over 625 districts. it’s aimed to need this variety to a minimum of five,000 by 2019 and ten,000 by 2020. additional enlargement goes to be thought of to support the outcomes of the first part.
- To promote entrepreneurship and start-ups, AIM is supporting AICs across the country, together with Tier II/III locations. These embody existing and new incubation centers. it’s expected that over one hundred first incubation centers are attending to be up and running by 2020.
- Foreign collaborators, consultants, visiting colleges, adjunct scientists, etc., should be concerned in following R&D inside the rising areas of basic sciences like engineering science, cell analysis, astronomy, genetics, next-generation genetic science, drug discovery, etc. DST, in collaboration with Indian Missions abroad, might determine discipline-wise foreign specialists United Nations agency will collaborate with Indian scientists to need basic analysis in these areas to the subsequent level.
- The teaching Commission, once supported, might take into account giving credits for innovation and start-ups and fitting online entrepreneurial development courses in faculties and universities.